the meeting that changed china
on a bitterly cold december day in 1978, the third plenary session of the 11th central committee of the communist party of china (中国共产党十一届三中全会) met in the large banquet hall of a modest hotel in western beijing. it was a meeting that would change the course of china's history.
under the leadership of deng xiaoping, the central committee adopted the policy of "reform and opening up." from then on, china would "reform" by encouraging entrepreneurs (企业家), and "open up" by seeking foreign investment, technology and business management practices. and it would also seek foreign markets for its newly manufactured (制造的) products — the key to china's future prosperity.
it's hard to imagine what life was like 40 years ago. shanghai's population was about six million in 1978. it was a slow-paced city whose streets were filled with bicycles, not cars. the tallest building was the park hotel on west nanjing road. it was also a relatively poor city, with people's income only a little above the national average of 100 u.s. dollars a year.
today, of course, shanghai is big, busy, prosperous and full of energy. nationally, china has the second largest economy in the world and is on target (有望实现) to top the u.s. in 20 years. in just those four decades since 1978, china has achieved what it took western countries several centuries to accomplish. all thanks to deng's foresight (远见) and the decisions made at that wintery meeting in beijing.
under president xi jinping's leadership, the reform and opening up policy is continuing, but it is also adapting. china is transforming from a manufacturing economy to a consumer-based economy. in other words, it is buying as well as selling. earlier this month, shanghai welcomed foreign businesses to showcase their products at the china international import expo (中国国际进口博览会). it was a great success. and, through the belt and road initiative (“一带一路”倡议), china is investing in other countries to help improve their economies and benefit the world economy through two-way trade.
this year, the anniversary of the "reform and opening up" policy has been celebrated with essay and poetry competitions and various exhibitions. but it should also be a time to celebrate the efforts of your parents and grandparents, and to remember the hardships they had to endure to give you the quality of life you now enjoy. they are the ones who helped make "reform and opening up" a success, and their legacy is now your responsibility.
1. how much do you know about the "reform and opening up" policy?
note: it is a policy initiated by deng xiaoping in december 1978. it means a reform of the economic system and an opening up to the outside world. it is the basic stance of the cpc in the primary stage of socialism (社会主义初级阶段) to build a more prosperous china.
2. forty years of reform and opening up have transformed china. can you share some examples that reflect the great changes in china in the past decades?
1. in just those four decades since 1978, china has achieved what① it took western countries several centuries to accomplish.
① what引导了一个宾语从句。在这个宾语从句中，what是to accomplish的宾语，共同构成了宾语从句的真正主语（it充当形式主语）。
e.g. i just wonder what she is looking for.
e.g. this agreement will undo what it took us years to build.
2. but it should also be a time to celebrate the efforts of your parents and grandparents①, and to remember the hardships they had to endure② to give you the quality of life you now enjoy③.
① 不定式短语作后置定语，对time进行修饰限定。一些名词后面常用不定式作状语，如chance、way、time等。另外，the first/second/last/only等用来修饰形容词或代词时，也常用不定式作状语。
③ 这里的动词不定式作目的状语，说明endure hardships的目的。
complete each sentence using one word from the box in its correct form. note that there is one word more than you need and you can use each word only once.
encouraging practices filled relatively celebrated decision
1. if she wants a routine to ________ her day, let her do community work.
2. he returned home each year to ________ christmas with his family.
3. given the failure of the previous plan, this turned out to be a(n) ________ success.
4. this is certainly a theoretical risk but in ________ there is seldom a problem.
5. when things aren't going well, my father ________ me, telling me not to give up.
key: fill celebrate relative practice encourages
1. he is the actor whose name was on everyone's lips yesterday.
2. she must have had a hard time raising four children by herself at that time. / it must have been hard for her to bring up four children on her own at that time.
3. only a small number of young people nowadays might enjoy this film.
choose the best answer.
1. which of the following cannot describe the author's attitude toward the great changes that have taken place in china in the past 40 years?
a. delighted. b. critical.
c. optimistic. d. surprised.
2. according to the article, which of the following statements is not true?
a. the united states is the largest economy in the world.
b. shanghai has benefited a lot from the reform and opening up policy.
c. china is certain to become the largest economy in the world in the next two decades.
d. the ciie shows china's determination to continue the reform and opening up policy.
3. what does the last sentence of the article imply?
a. young people should feel grateful for what their parents and grandparents have done for them.
b. the older generations have made great contributions to china’s development in the past 40 years.
c. young people still need to work hard to consolidate the achievements of reform and opening up.
d. the older generations should tell more about the details of reform and opening up to their descendants.
what has changed in people's lives since china's reform and opening up began? interview your parents or grandparents to find out more information and answer that question in a report.
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